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Methodology for Investigating the Hypothesis of

Anomalous Remote Perceptions as Objective Phenomena

Nelson Abreu, Science of Self Club, University of Florida

 

SUMMARY

 

            This work is a response to widespread popular and medical interest concerning the near-death experience (NDE) and the out-of-body experience (OBE), an international and very prevalent body of anecdotal accounts, recent pioneering research, and vastly significant epistemological implications.  The demand for rigorous, scientific methods for investigating claims of accurate remote observations through anomalous sensory means is unambiguous. 

 

                If likelihood is significant that phenomena often-described as will-induced out-of-body experiences, remote viewing, or telepathy are real and objective, it would justify serious research into the physics behind them  – quantum mechanical, field, or otherwise.   First, research should test whether or not there is any sensory technique that allows one to observe a remote physical location beyond the reach of any well-established method of observation. 

 

                In this double-blind research model, participants are instructed to attempt to identify a target at a known but remote location, so that they cannot observe it according to current conventional knowledge.  After preliminary tests using objects randomly picked by the investigator, a computer quasi-randomly selects a target (typically an image) using a simple client-side program for formal tests.

 

                A strict protocol, developed by Wagner Alegretti and Nanci Trivellato (International Academy of Consciousness, IAC), aimed at minimizing collusion is adopted. The subjectivity of recent IAC target recognition studies is reduced by using image orientation markings and disclosing the pool of possible targets before and after the participants attempt to identify the computer-selected target.  After each session, the participants transcribe their experience and whether or not they seem to have observed the target.  If a target was observed, the participant identifies it, even if it is not part of the target collection.  Next, similar to Ganzfeld methodology, 10 of the targets – one of which is the correct target – are played or displayed.  Once again, the participant is asked which of the targets matched their observation (if any).

 

                This experiment can also addresses a wider range of target media: objects (for preliminary tests); static visual or acoustic targets; dynamic images or sounds; digitally-controlled outputs (such as an LED array).  Also, targets are selected to allow the investigation of a correlation between emotion- or mood-related targets and recognition (or ‘hit’) rate. 

 

MOTIVATION

 

One of the first questions that emerge before an undertaking is “Why bother with it?” What are the potential benefits of studying the out-of-body experience?  These could be classified into at least these 3 categories:

 

  1. Universality & number of reports
  2. Personal & social implications
  3. Multidisciplinary scientific and practical implications

 

Universality.  The out-of-body experience has been reported and documented by the most diverse cultures throughout the times.  We can begin by observing the myriads of terminologies available for the act of projecting (astralwanderung, Germany), for the “second body” described as a more subtle double of the physical body used during a projection (kha, Egypt), and the silver cord (sutratma, India), which connects the two.  There are also numerous names for an energy system (of which the silver cord would be part of) that include terms like chi or bioenergies as well as chakras.  These hundreds of terminologies were created by cultures ranging from Eskimos to Peruvians, from ancient Greece, Egypt, Africa, and China to modern Europe and Brazil. 

 

Let us examine a small portion of examples of just one of these terms.

Immanent Energy:

Mahashakti

Mana (Polynesia, Hawaiian Kahunas)

Acasa, prakriti, mulaprakriti (Hindu)

Andrimanitra (Malaysia, Philippines)

Baraka (Sufi)

Atna (Maori, New Zeland)

Ayki (Elgonyi, Africa)

Ani (Ponape, Pacific)

Glama (Persia)

Huaca (Peru)

Ki (China, Japanese Acupuncture)

Labuni (New Guinea)

Megbe (Ituri pygmies)

Mulungu (Yaos, Central Africa)

Mungo (Sudan)

Oki, orenda (Iroquois Indians)

Sila (Eskimos)

Yesod (Kaballah)

Sa (Egypt)

Ruach (Hebrews)

 

Negative Entropy (Erwin Schrodinger)

Nous (Plato)

Vis medicatrix naturae (Hippocrates)

Synchronicity (Carl Gustav Jung)

Arqueo, munis (Paracelsus)

Bio-flux (Paul Joire)

Anima mundi (Avicenna: 980-1037)

Biolicete (Vladimir Pravdine)

Élan vital (Henri Louis Bergson: 1850-1935)

Bioplasmic energy (Russian scientists)

Noetic energy (Charles Muses)

Psychotronic energy (Robert Pavlitta)

Facultas formatrix (Galeno: 130-200)

Magnetic fluid (Franz Anton Mesmer)

Force of Life (Luigi Galvani: 1739-1798)

 

Even if some terms are not exact synonyms, it is evident that “humanity is anxious to recognize, understand, and control this energy that permeates the Cosmos, apparently omnipresent, with multiple varieties, and verified since 30 centuries before the actual era of the Gregorian calendar (Waldo Vieira).”

 

The astral projection is related to philosophical schools like:

Anthroposophy

Kabbalah

Castanedan

Esoteric

Spiritism

Hagiological

Hinduism

Jungian

Rosacrucian

Swedenborg

Theosophy

Umbandism

Voodoo

Xamanism

Zen-Buddhism

 

It is also worth noting that the International Bibliography of Projectiology contains over 1900 works, whose originals derive from 28 countries, in 18 languages:

German (Allgeier)

Arabic (Ebeid)

Chinese (Wang)

Danish (Nielsson)

Spanish (Anglada)

Esperanto (Kardec)

French (bret)

Greek (Plutarch)

Hebrew (Almeida)

Dutch (Poortman)

English (Brennan)

Italian (Bozzano)

Japanese (Meishu-Sama)

Latin (Swedenborg)

Portuguese (Antunes)

Russian (Pushkin)

Sanskrit (Woods)

Swedish (Jacobson)

 

Professor Ernesto Bozzano catalogued 254 sources in 50 years, Dr. Robert Crookall 838 in 30 years, and the tome “700 Experiments of Conscientiology” lists 5,116 bibliographical sources, from 37 countries, and 20 languages.

 

The universality of the phenomenon can be verified by studying the authors and researchers that have shared their experiences.  Here are a few of them from 9 different countries:

West Germany: Herbert H. G. Engel; Alfred Lischka.

Brazil: Waldo Vieira; Yvonne do Amaral Pereira; Hamilton Prada.

Dennmark: Johannes E. Hohlenberg.

Spain: Vicente Beltran Anglada.

USA: Richard Greene; Robert Monroe; Muldoon; Henry Olcott; Tanous; Swann; Mittl; Harary.

France: Yram; Anne Osmont; Francis Lefebure; Honore de Balzac.

England: “Oliver Fox” (Callaway); William Gerhardie; Vincent Turvey; Joseph Whiteman;

Ireland: Eileen Garrett

Sweden: Emanuel Swedenborg

 

Frequency.  Numerous statistical surveys done in the past century, in at least 7 countries (USA, UK, South Africa, Iceland, Italy, Australia, and Brazil) in 4 continents reveal that – at the very least – 1% of humanity (over 60 million individuals) have had some type of lucid projection of the consciousness at least once in their lifetime. Here are some examples:

 

Paola Giovetti, Italy     110 of 300                  

Susan Blackmore         12% of 321     1981    mail

                                    13% of 217     1981    students

                                    14% of 155     1981    students

U New England, AUS  16% of 177     1980    students

U of Virginia, USA      25% of 268     1979    students

Surrey U, UK               11% of 132     1978    students

Iceland                         8% of 902       1977

John Palmer                 14% of 341     1974    adults; Charlottesville, VA, US; among them:

                                    25% of 266                 students

Frances Mary Banks    45% of 800                 English church-goers

Robert Allan Monroe   approx. 1/3                  public conference in New York

Charles Theodore Tart 44% of 150     1971    marijuana users with psychedelic experience

Celia Green                  19% of 115     1967    Southampton University, UK

                                    34% of 380     1967    Oxford University, UK

Hornell Hart                 27% of 115     1952    Duke University (NC) sociology students

 

Two ongoing online surveys are available at:

http://www.out-of-body.com/   William Buhlman

http://www.iipc.org/                 International Institute of Projectiology & Conscientiology

 

Applications. Perhaps the most compelling motivation for these studies is the multidisplinary plethora of possibilities from practical applications of resulting methods and theories, including:

 

The role of consciousness in the establishment and perception of physical reality

The nature, attributes, faculties of consciousness in a more integral manner

The demystification of psi phenomena, near-death experience, out-of-body experience

More than a glimpse of life-after death

Reduction of bellicose parochialism towards fraternal universalism  

Better understanding and partial or full circumvention of some mental and physical disabilities

Improving performance: academic, athletic, intellectual, creative (original ideas) and emotional

National security, law enforcement, judiciary issues

Shedding light on ethics, bioethics, environmental policy

Location of natural resources, missing persons

Prospecting of archeological, oceanographic, astronomical locations

More integral medical and psychological practice

Retrocognition applications for history scholars

 

“Psychic research presents a challenge that science can no longer avoid…. It can be an important element in the long-sought formula for enriching human awareness, reconstructing society, and generally aiding nature in the great work of evolution.”

 

-          Edgar Mitchell, Apollo XIV astronaut, Institute of Noetic Sciences founder

 

 

PERSPECTIVES

 

Broadly speaking, today’s scientific world is bipolar regarding “expert opinions” on the nature of the out-of-body experience and so-called transcendental experiences.  Neurologists and neuroscientists have triggered such experiences by stimulating different sectors of the brain.  Neurobiologists have detected radical changes in brain activity during transcendental experiences that are largely interpreted as the cause of these experiences.  On the other hand, physicians, parapsychologists and projectiologists have demonstrated anomalous exercise of consciential attributes during near-death experiences, out-of-body experiences, precognitive remote viewing, perception and other situations.

 

Many conventional scientists interpret the two groups of evidence as mutually exclusive and understandably trust a PET scan more than non-conventional studies of phenomena s/he has not experienced.  Some fundamental issues surface here:

(1)   There is a widespread apriori assumption that the consciousness must arise from physical processes.

(2)   Is it not possible that the neurobiological activity during these experiences can be a concomitant effect of a transcendental experience?  When it is the cause, must the resulting experience be oneiric or imaginary? Consider the case of the epileptic patient that, while physically unconscious reported out-of-body sensations and accurate visual perceptions of the operating room caused by Dr. Olaf Blanke’s electromagnetic stimulation of her right angular gyrus.

(3)   Just because anomalous perception is neuropathology-linked in some cases, it does not logically follow that all cases (or even the majority) are caused by brain damage or dysfunction.

(4)   Objective research depends on consensus of many subjective experiences – including interpretation of data – from individual frames or scales of observation. 

(5)   Most conventional paradigm researchers who make a judgment on the nature of out-of-body experience do not experience it regularly enough (if ever).

(6)   The conventional paradigm is wholly inadequate to address essential philosophical and scientific matters that could lie beyond the physical dimension and the brain, except perhaps for their indirect manifestations.  In other words, if the consciousness (or anything for that matter) turns out to be non-physical, science requires an epistemological expansion: “an elephant does not fit into a match box.”

 

The consciential paradigm, proposed by the Brazilian veteran projector and consciousness researcher Waldo Vieira, MD maintains scientific principles without necessarily limiting its studies to the physical realm.  Physical and physiological measurements can provide, at best, secondary indications or manifestations of what we want to observe (bioenergies, extraphysical reality).  Since we do not currently have technologies that allow us to observe bioenergies and extraphysical reality, to observe it “in all its glory,” live, in vivo, the consciousness must study itself through personal experience (the subject is the researcher, his experience the laboratory).

 

Rather than depending on the accounts of others (who usually find it hard to translate the exotic sensations, perceptions, and events they witness), the researcher him/herself develops the ability to induce lucid projections (which seems to facilitate other basic parapsychic faculties) to investigate extraphysical realities first hand (para-hand?).  Scientific conclusions (cutting-edge, but always temporary, relative) can be reached through the consensus of experiences of thousands of other projectors, cognition of physical events or information (and even of that which is largely thought to be exclusively subjective: through sympathetic para-assimilations and projective hyperacuity which are reportedly normal in that condition), simultaneous projections where researchers can explore in groups, indirect or direct detection of presence in a room (animal clairvoyance, sensitive technologies in existence or to be developed), among other schemes.

 

Even if one considers the question of whether the OBE is real as anachronistic, and even if lucid projection can provide us with a rough sketch of how the consciousness and the brain interact we do not know how this occurs in detail.  Lucid projectors (as well as clairvoyants and the practitioners of numerous vital energy, or chi, practices) observe a system or “body” of subtle energies that seems to form the interface and glue between the physical body and a more subtle body (psychosoma).  The interactions of this vehicle (holochakra) seem to be responsible for interpersonal or transpersonal and parapsychic or paranormal phenomena.  But how exactly does information and energy flow to and from the physical body? Is there a para-brain that the brain communicates with?  The answer to this question will emerge when the “two ends meet” – neuroscience and neurology from one side and projectiology and paraneurology from the other.  Each answer, generates more questions which remain such as: “why does the consciousness need a psychoma to communicate with the brain? Is the consciousness inserted in the parabrain or does it use yet another interface? If so, why? If these “bodies” exist in the same space-time are they in different frequencies or densities of reality with different degrees of insubstantiality? If the consciousness existed before birth, then why wouldn’t we remember it?

 

RESEARCH

 

From the extensive body of research on remote perception, we can highlight these cases:

 

HOLLAND

 

On December 15, 2001, the highly respected international medical journal, The Lancet, published a study of  more than a decade on Near Death Experiences (NDE’s) observed in 10 different Dutch hospitals. In one of very few NDE studies to be conducted prospectively, meaning that a large group of patients whose heart and/or breathing function ceased were resuscitated during a fixed period of time, 18% of the 334 patients reported NDE’s.  From these 62 patients, 41 (12%) described a ‘core experience.’ The majority of these patients felt this was one of the most positively marking experiences of their life, re-prioritizing their activities to live more purposefully, reducing their fear of death, or even improving their personality and behavior towards others and themselves.

 

This study brings into question hypoxia or anoxia as a main cause of the NDE. It also reminds of the recent studies on blind patients who had a NDE and made accurate visual observations (“Mindsight” by Ring and Cooper). It is estimated that one in every thousand patients checked-in to the hospital has a NDE.

 

SWITZERLAND

 

In a 2002 BBC Radio debate, Dr. Olaf Blanke revealed that the epileptic patient - who unexpectedly reported out-of-body perceptions when her right-angular gyrus was stimulated - actually made visual observations of the operating room that the conventional scientific paradigm cannot explain. Even though he understandably excluded these details from the article published in the journal Nature, the Bern neuroscientist did not dismiss the possibility of the objective out-of-body experience, stating many more studies should be carried out.

 


USA

 

One of the first researchers to perform laboratorial experiments on the OBE was psychologist Dr. Charles Theodore Tart (1937 - ). In 1966, he invited a young projector to participate in a series of experiments in the sleep laboratory of the University of California - Davis. The historical projectiological experiments took four nights in which the projector - "Miss Z" - was to lay down and try to exit the physical body, while connected to a series of devices that measured her physiological conditions. The objective of the experiments was the identification of a quasi-randomly generated five-digit number, approximately 1.5 meters above her head (impossible to be physically observed).

 

From Monday to Wednesday, the projector reported having seen the clock while floating out of body. At the times informed by her, the devices demonstrated unusual brain-wave patterns. An absence of rapid-eye movements (REM) was also observed. On Wednesday night, Miss Z identified the target number: 25132. The brain-wave pattern during conscious projection was different from the patterns during waking state, sleep and other altered states of consciousness (an expression proposed by Tart himself).

 

Between 1965 and 1966, the same pioneer researcher studied Robert Allan Monroe in 8 occasions in the Electroencephalographical Laboratory of the School of Medicine at the University of Virginia.  Equipment like EEG, ECG, and EOG was employed, much to the discomfort of the projector.  Monroe was asked to read a 5-digit, quasi-random number on a shelf placed 2 meters above the floor. 

 

During the first seven nights, he was not successful. On the eight night, he had two brief lateral projections.  On the first one, he witnessed some strangers talking at an unknown place at a distance, which could not be confirmed.  However, on the second occasion, Monroe correctly described, outside the room, the woman technician and a man, later identified as her husband.

 

The ocular movements were slower than in regular sleep. The Stage I brain wave pattern, typical of natural sleep with dreams, was observed almost immediately after Monroe laid down – an extremely rare event, as this stage normally occurs after 80 to 90 minutes of sleep without dreams.  The heart rate was between 65 and 75 beats per minute.

 

A study by Janet Lee Mitchell (American Society for Psychical Research, ASPR) and Karlis Osis on the traveling clairvoyance of surrealist painter and writer Ingo Swann resulted in 8 of 8 correct target observations with 1 in 40,000 probability for a chance occurrence.  When Swann reported his vision was outside of his body, there was loss of electrical activity and faster brain wave impulses in the visual areas in the occipital lobes. During this state, there was greater drop in alpha activity in the right hemisphere than in the left, while other organic functions remained normal.

 

Osis also carried out a “fly-in” experiment with around 100 projectors who had as a target a small office in the fourth floor of ASPR, where they were to inspect four target objects (unknown to them, to be observed in a certain time frame and angle of observation).  Only 15% of them reached the New York office.  Osis did not think the results of this experiment were significant, because event the best projectors often described objects in terms of their form and colors and not as material things with their exact names.  This experiment demonstrates the hypothesis that the process of information acquisition or cognition during projection of the consciousness is different from what would be expected from physical experience and even from common extrasensory perception.

 

There were, however, interesting observations:

Some, like a projector from Toronto who observed a veridical fire in a nearby block, got sidetracked by other things along the way.  Others saw the objects with distortions, or reported circular or global vision (seeing in all directions simultaneously).  A barrier placed on the table to separate the different targets was seen as transparent by many of them.

 

Alexander Tanous related that his awareness traveled several times from Portland (Maine) to the target locale during the experiment.  Not only did he successfully observe the objects and shape of the table, but also noted a tea cup, which indeed was unintentionally left there by another researcher.  Elwood Babbitt also described the target correctly in his third fly-in from Massachusetts. He correctly drew the shape and location of a broad, small plant, a painting, and a small sculpture of a smiling girl.  Teddy Marmoreo of Toronto projected to the site at night before the experiment and saw Osis sleeping at ASPR – an account which was confirmed.

 

In 1977, Robert Lyle Morris and Stuart Harary of Duke University.  From the University of CaliforniaSanta Barbara, Harary (his body connected to various physiological devices) was to visit Spirit, his two-month old cat, whose movements in a cage were detected by sensors at Duke.  Sharp behavior difference was observed when the projector was projected near the cat, which became passive, calm, without meowing as if it was seeing or feeling Harary’s presence.  When he wasn’t projected, Spirit was continuously trying to exit the cage it was in and meowed 37 times.  The results were considered p=.01.  Simple telepathy was excluded through a false projection, where Harary simply imagined the occurrence. In posterior studies where the animal did not have affinity not Harary, there results were insignicant.

 

In 1979, Karlis Osis and Donna McCormick verified that a projector correctly identified a random optical target, in a locked room replete of sensors, 114 of 197 (57.87%) trials in 20 sessions.  During these 114 “hits,” kinetic effects were observed demonstrating the presence of something subtle but nonetheless physical.

 

Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research (PEAR) Laboratory Precognitive Remote Perception (PRP) studies in 1987 already contained 334 formal trials obtained by some 40 “percipients”, who generated written descriptions of an unknown geographical target where the “agent” was located before, during, or after the description.  Then, they were to fill out a check sheet of questions for later analytical judging.  The agent typically spent ten to fifteen minutes at the target, beginning at the assigned time and writes down his observations before filling out the same checklist.  Photographs, when possible, were taken of the locale for description comparison.  Locations were either instructed (randomly selected from a large pool created by a third party) or spontaneously selected by the agent at will at the time of the trial (volitional mode). Most of the perceptions were performed precognitively, before the target was even selected. 

 

Results have varied from “photographic precision,” to partial correspondence of environment and/or components, to completely inaccurate.  Major geometrical distortions, differences in emphasis of parts of the scene, progression from accurate to inaccurate description or vice-versa are not uncommon.  Brenda Dunne (who published the first non-classified paper on the topic) and Dr. Robert Jahn therefore created more systematic quantitative assessment procedures.  The one that combined effectiveness with simplicity the best was through a list of thirty statistically weighted, binary descriptor questions.

 

The PRP studies reveal that physical distance between the agent and percipient (from same city to different continent) had no significant deterioration of the signal-to-noise ratio.  There is was no statistically significant dependence on whether the description was made hours or even days before or after the experiment.  One might expect volitional trials to be more successful than instructed ones, suspecting sympathetic (predisposition, subconscious, telepathy) target selection.  Even though there was not very significant difference, the instructed trials actually scored better.  Such observations suggest that “the strongest ‘‘signals’’ are generated under the ‘‘noisiest’’ conditions.  However, there is a significant body of anecdotal cases indicating that emotional or physiological affinity between the participants can facilitate the process.  According to the authors, the process seems imprecise and bi-directional, naturally subject to distortions and displacement effects. 

 

While about 14% of the 334 trials are individually significant by the .05 criterion, over 62% score above the chance mean.  So individual, modest increments of significance compounded to very noticeable results.  Curiously, it was also statistically determined that the success of the overall results is not attributable to exceptional performance by only a few participants. Presently, according to a paper available on its website (Information and Uncertainty in Remote Perception Research) PEAR has accumulated over 650 remote perception trials with an extraordinarily low overall significance level on the order of parts in 10 millions (p = 3 x 10-8, one tailed). 

 

The researchers suspect that the information signal is encoded in the noise (the more strictly objective the quantification, the less the phenomenon can express itself). This trends “appears to be associated with the participants’ growing attention to, and dependence upon, the progressively more detailed descriptor formats and with the corresponding reduction in the content of the accompanying free-response transcripts.” The more the descriptions became forced-choice tasks, the more restricted the flow of unconscious imagery became. 

 

The program has passed the severe scrutiny of the researchers themselves, Princeton’s review board, and their tough critics but this does not make the conclusions any easier to face.  PEAR  also has the largest open literature database on the subject.   Other laboratories have used no agent at all. This is similar to the class of experiments discussed below.

 

IMAGE-TARGET PERCEPTION

 

As was noted in some of the aforementioned studies, paracognition is often accompanied by deformations of the forms or ambience.  Also, there seem to be different trends in traveling clairvoyance and out-of-body experience perception.  Two studies performed in Portugal, Spain, and the USA by International Academy of Consciousness researchers noted similar phenomena (Journal of Conscientiology Vol. 4, 15 S).  Both utilized photographs or drawings quasi-randomly selected by a computer and displayed on a computer monitor to be identified through traveling clairvoyance or out-of-body experience (“double-blind” protocols were employed to rule out telepathy).

 

According to projectiology, during an OBE, the consciousness projects from the physical body and traverses space to the target, perceives the target, interprets the information returns, by will or through the automatic retraction of the silver cord which transmits the information through bioenergies from the parabrain of the psychosoma to the physical brain, which did not participate directly and must handle the information with available synapses (which may not be sufficiently developed for this task).  Through each of these steps, there is ample room for distorting, fragmenting, diluting, or even blocking the biomemories of the experience altogether.  Either way, lucid projectors affirm that the events are registered in their holomemory (integral, non-physical memory of the consciousness).

 

A major determining factor for the fidelity and memory of the experience is the level of awareness or lucity of the projected consciousness, which depends – among other factors like drug use, hypotheses dealing with thought-forms and morphic resonance / holothosene / information field – inversely to the amount of bioenergies carried by the psychosoma.  This, in turn, depends on the proficiency of control of bioenergies and distance to the soma (physical body).  Generally speaking, an area of 4 to 5 meters around the soma is particularly dense (psychosphere, area of influence of the silver cord).  On the other hand, the longer and more distant the experience, the less details the consciousness tends to remember.

 

In the case of remote viewing, the body does not enter the vegetative “empty brain” condition.  Though, under slight discoincidence, the consciousness remains in the physical brain (being able to speak, write, and draw for example).  Rather, it projects its sensibility through a portion of the energies of the holochakra (system of energies that contains the chakras, nadis, and the silver cord).

 

In general, projectors give a better account of the general ambience, while remote viewers give more accurate description of details of a target.  Levels of perception can be listed as follows:

  1. Completely irrelevant/inaccurate
  2. Reached target; lost lucidity entering the room
  3. Looked at target (computer screen), could not see the image
  4. General idea of color; identify location
  5. Sketch with dubious perceptions (saw the grass, but missed the dog)
  6. General idea of shape;

Association of ideas (perceived: bulldog chasing car; target: bulldog on grass)

  1. Description of the target

Example: Teddy bear, red bow, limping to left side, on white shelf, pink lace on right side

 

Suggestive of the PRP studies, in some cases, the projectors identified the image that showed up the next day (“black Labrador, beige background”).  How do you quantify “how approximately correct” a description was? Unlike the PRP, there were no descriptor questions and a systematic quantitative assessment procedure was not clearly described.  Although that could be a valuable enhancement, this emphasizes that the studies are more concerned with how remote perception works, moving beyond whether it exists as a consensually real, objective phenomenon.  The researchers concluded have had enough more than sufficient evidence through the consensus of their extensive personal experience.

 

How does extraphysical perception compare and differ from physical perception? Repeated remote perception and extraphysical cognition experiments will slowly shed some light on this. Recent studies of the out-of-body experience using remote targets and the innumerous anecdotal accounts have lead many to ascribe much of the difficulty of these remote observations to the nature of the target (in light of the complex and largely obscure mechanics of the phenomenon). The aforementioned IAC studies (by Wagner Alegretti and Nanci Trivellato; Patricia Sousa and Rodrigo Medeiros) led to conclusions that the light from the monitor, the two dimensional nature of the target, broad room for subjective interpretation, and misinterpretations due to the occurrence of observations with rotated orientations (possibly, a natural extraphysical cognitive phenomenon) were some of the likely obstacles.

 

Alternatively, it has been hypothesized that real objects may facilitate remote extraphysical perception. Also, from these studies and accumulated anecdotal experiences it has been conjectured that primary colors are more easily identified than type (text). It is proposed that any image or print be replaced by some sort of object representation with more salient depth (a more pronounced third dimension).

 

The subjectivity of recent IAC target recognition studies might be further reduced by disclosing the pool of possible targets before and after the participants attempt to identify the computer-selected target.  After each session, the participants transcribe their experience and whether or not they seem to have observed the target.  If a target was observed, the participant identifies it, even if it is not part of the target collection.  Next, similar to Ganzfeld methodology, 10 of the targets – one of which is the correct target – are played or displayed.  Once again, the participant is asked which of the targets matched their observation (if any).

 

For comparison, we use dynamic visual targets (video) besides static ones (stills, pictures).  Also, provided the target room is soundproof, acoustic targets can be employed.  Static acoustic targets consist of single words, while dynamic acoustic targets are short phrases.  This 2 x 2 study would provide richer information about the two types of remote sensing.

 

At least two setups have been described to address these issues without robots, while integrating the use of colors and considering very low incidence probabilities and the “double-blind” aspect of the research. One is primarily an electronic system, while the second is primarily mechanical. Both attempt to integrate color identification. One uses an array of labeled squares, similar to a chessboard, wherein each square contains the same set of colored light bulbs. The second uses two rotating wheels with alphanumerical and color options. Pliable materials are suggested in place of printed symbols.

 

The first setup uses a similar computer program as in previous such studies to select something quasi-randomly. However, in this case, the computer selects two numbers between 0 and 35 that represent a location’s coordinates and one number between 0 and 4 that represents a color. These numbers, once converted into binary numbers, are fed as inputs to a digital control circuit that will light up one of 5 colored light bulbs in one of 36 x 36 squares. The array is labeled somewhat like a chessboard (see Fig. 1), with vertical and horizontal coordinates ranging from 0-Z (i.e. 10 different digits and 26 different upper-case letters of the alphabet). This way, an

observer can report the “row 9, column V” location as “9V”.

 

To prevent confusion between rows and columns due to rotated perception, the coordinate axis are clearly labeled “row” and “column.” The alphanumerical labels are legibly made with some easily-pliable material, such as play dough. Clearly, the dimensions of the board will be affected by the size of the labels. It would certainly be very disappointing to have to redo the board because it was too small! Finally, as aforementioned, each square contains the same set of 5 light bulbs (or light-emitting diodes) that emit (or are identified by) different colors (e.g. black, white, blue, red, yellow).

 

The probability of N correct guesses (correct location coordinates and correct color) would be 1 in 6480 to the Nth power. These odds should be vastly satisfactory when several ‘hit’ occurrences are compounded, or for two or more successful observations during one session. Even without the colored light bulbs, this method would still have great statistical advantages to previous models, due to greater objectivity and reduced complexity of the target information. Three concrete and specific numbers replace myriads of possible descriptions.

 

The same would hold true for a much simpler setup that replaces the square matrix by three coordinate axis arrays with 36, 36 and 5 emitters each.  The first two could even be combined into a single array that would display two lights (except in the event that the two spatial coordinates are equal).  This makes the experimental setup much more realizable, and it should be simpler to discern the coordinates.

 

The second model is a set of a type of roulette or wheel (evocative of those in internationally popular TV contest shows as The Price is Right and the Wheel of Fortune). Rather than

monetary values or prizes, each radial section of the wheel (36 x 5 in total) displays a different alphanumerical symbol of a certain color (5 in total). Rather than symbols and colors printed in ink, colored play dough (or another very pliable substance) is utilized. Alternatively, foam or another ultralight material can be utilized, so that the moment of inertia of the different mass representations become insignificant. Additionally, the spinning mechanism operator must not see or hear the wheel rotating. In order to conduct a “double-blind” experiment, necessary measures must be taken for a human operator, or a more complex electromechanical control system can be used that allows activation with minimal human interaction or proximity. To increase statistical value, several wheels and or some sections could be used.  There are, of course, many variations on this theme – like a set of two or three lottery-type devices.

 

In an interview, Rodrigo Medeiros indicated that his research group’s most recent “image-target” investigation results (to be published) were, indeed, very significant. Nonetheless, we should study how colors and symbols on a computer screen compare to printed ones, physical representations of the same, or even voice recordings of the names of these colors and symbols. Hence, a study could use the best performing or even all of these media as simultaneous remote-observation targets.

 

While a database of at least a hundred different symbols with common names can be easily gathered, it would be interesting to see if icons (like those used in internet relay chat rooms) and words that are related to moods and emotions yield more significant results.  Projectiology admits the irruption of the psychosoma – a subtle vehicle of manifestation of the consciousness, greatly related to emotions   in the physical body; studies on anomalous communication or interference of the consciousness with physical systems seem to be much more pronounced when strong empathy, emotions or desires are involved. (Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research lab, humans; Rupert Sheldrake, animals).

 

The commendable “triple-blind” research protocol administered in the study “Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Experimental Research Project into OBE” (Alegretti; Trivellato) is recommended for rigorous testing.  Several participants lay comfortably in one sound-proofed room, while the computer is inside a locked room nearby and guarded by a third-party observer, while the researchers possess the key. However, a preliminary series of informal studies – that require less resources and planning time – is important to compare how well different types of targets are perceived. 

 

When each participant cannot be isolated, listening to pink noise through headphones can abate common disturbances from noise caused by other participants. However, it may cause discomfort and thwart their projectability. Equidistance from the target does not seem like a significant variable for this research. A future modality could use quasi-randomly selected objects using robotics (to maintain the “double-blind” aspect).  Finally, it would be interesting to detect the presence of the psychosoma at the target room through a variety of methods like infrared imaging or phosphorescence effect.

 

CONCLUSION

 

The suggested recommendations to recent remote perception work should yield another step closer in the marathon of understanding this extremely complicated multidimensional process. The information gathered to date – laboratorial, anecdotal, cross-cultural, and historical – on the projection of the consciousness and traveling clairvoyance has – at the very least – established these subjects as worthy fields of scientific study.  There is certainly “a superavit of questions and a deficit of answers,” general sketches with little mathematical precision, typical of an infant science. 

 

To improve the integration of self-study of consciousness with conventional sciences, continual improvement and repetition of experiments like those mentioned in this document are irreplaceable.  However, potential catalysts of this process may include these studies or activities:

 

Personal training in perception and control of bioenergies

            Installing the pre-projective vibrational state by will

            Improved extraphysical movement and lucidity

Personal training in lucid projectability (over 30 techniques in Projectiology alone)

Reproduction of the neurobiological study of the vibrational state (Wagner Alegretti)

Improved understanding of biomemory (neuroscience) as it relates to projection

Facilitation of replicable projectability for beginners (long-term dependency not withstanding)

            Hypnosis

            Non-invasive electromagnetic stimulation

            Extraphysical awakening during REM sleep through assistant in terris

            Development of lucid dreaming (semi-conscious projection) to lucid projection

            Mechanical induction of the vibrational state (vibratory chair)

Perfecting the Bioenergetic Proteic Resistive Transductor

(1st International Congress of Projectiology & Conscientiology, Wagner Alegretti)

Study of the phosphorescence effect during take-off of the psychosoma

Improvement of photography and filming of the dense psychosoma

Change in weight during take-off and re-interiorization;

Emanations and weight change during physical death (final projection, dessoma);

Physiological changes resultant from bioenergy field of Extension 2 laboratory (IAC)

Detection and imaging of kinetic effects during Projective Field laboratory (IAC)     

Possible equipment includes:

Ion displacement counters

Zero-lux / night-vision / infrared cameras

Gauss meters / EMF camera

Phosphorescent film

 

As neuroscience and projectiology evolve, we will come closer to understanding the complex bi-directional flow of energies and information between the physical and non-physical brain.  With the expansion of science into multidimensional reality, science and society will also expand the understanding of the self, its attributes and faculties.  Phenomena that today seem so enigmatic and mystical will become popularly understood through science.  As some prophesize the end of science, we will realize science is just beginning. As we begin to develop the most advanced technologies available today – our own faculties – we will be able to make tremendous strides in all fields of science and scholarship.  As more and more persons study the self in a more integral, multissomatic, and multidimensional way, we can expect gradual, but sweeping and irreversible changes in the way we think of ourselves, the way we work, our relationship to others, ethics, the relationship of the consciousness with energy (and matter), and the evolution of life.

 

 

 

 


 

REFERENCES

 

ABREU, Nelson; Alternative Experimental Models for Quantitative Analysis of Experimental Research into Remote-Target Perception; JOURNAL OF CONSCIENTIOLOGY. N. 19; London, UK; International Academy of Consciousness; 2003.

 

ALEGRETTI, Wagner; TRIVELATTO, Nanci; Survey Research about the Projection of the Consciousness through the Internet; “Annals of the 1st International Forum of Consciousness Research and 2nd International Congress of Projectiology”; Barcelona, Spain; International Institute of Projectiology & Conscientiology; 1999.

 

ALEGRETTI, Wagner. Tecnologia Bioenergetica: a intrumentacao da consciencia; “Annals of the 1st International Forum of Consciousness Research and 2nd International Congress of Projectiology”; Barcelona, Spain; International Institute of Projectiology & Conscientiology; 1999.

 

BEM, D. J. Ganzfeld phenomena; “Encyclopedia of the Paranormal”; p. 291-296; Buffalo, NY; Prometheus Books.

 

BLACKMORE, Susan; Parapsychology: With or Without the OBE?; PARAPSYCHOLOGY REVIEW; New York; Vol. 13; N. 6; 1982.

 

BLANKE, Olaf et al; Neuropsychology: Stimulating Illusory own-body perceptions; NATURE; Nature Publishing Group; N. 419; p. 269-270; 19 September 2002.

 

BLANKE, Olaf et al; Out-of-body experience and autoscopy of neurological origin; BRAIN; Vol. 127; N. 2; p. 243-258; February 2004.

 

CROOKALL, Robert; “The Study and Practice of Astral Projection”; p. 94, 95; New Hyde Park, New York, USA; University Books; 1966.

 

DUNNE, Brenda; Information and Uncertainty in Remote Perception Research; Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research; Online Archive; Available URL: http://www.princeton.edu/~pear/IU.pdf

 

DUNNE, Brenda; JAHN, Robert; “Margins of Reality: The Role of Consciousness in Physical Reality”; p. 149-190; New York; Harcourt, Inc; 1987.

 

 

LAVERDIERE, RENEE et al; “Types of Equipment [in Paranormal Investigations]”; Lecture; The Atlantic Paranormal Society; Paranormal Research Society UNIV-CON conference; Pennsylvania State University; University Park, Pennsylvania; October 25, 2003.

 

MEDEIROS, Rodrigo; SOUSA, Patricia; Image Target Research Project: a Methodology to Support Research on Remote Perception; JOURNAL OF CONSCIENTIOLOGY; N. 15S; London, UK; International Academy of Consciousness; 2002.

 

MEDEIROS, Rodrigo; “Developing your Clairvoyance: The Role of Clairvoyance in the Development of the Consciousness”; Workshop; International Academy of Consciousness; Miami; February 15, 2004.

 

MEDEIROS, Rodrigo; “Scientific Study of Out-of-Body Experiences”; Lecture; Science of Self Club Speaker Series; University of Florida; Gainesville, Florida, USA; January 5, 2004.

 

MONROE, Robert; “Journeys Out of the Body”; Anchor Press; New York; 1977.

 

MORRIS, Robert et al; Studies of Communication During Out-of-Body Experiences; JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR PSYCHICAL RESEARCH; Vol. 72, N. 1; New York; 1978.

 

OSIS, Karlis; MC CORMICK, Donna; Kinetic Effects at the Ostensible Location of an Out-of-Body Projection During Perceptual Testing; JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR PSYCHICAL RESEARCH; Vol. 74, N. 3; New York; 1980.

 

OSIS, Karlis; Out-of-Body Research at the ASPR; ASPR Newsletter; N. 22; New York; 1974.

 

SOUSA, Patricia. “Out-of-Body Experience & Dreams: Analysis & Comparison”; Course; International Academy of Consciousness; Miami, Florida, USA; May 2003.

 

TART, Charles; A Psychophysiological Study of Out-of-the-Body Experiences in a Selected Subject; INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PARAPSYCHOLOGY; USA; 1967.

 

TRIVELATTO, Nanci; ALEGRETTI, Wagner; Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Experimental Research Project into OBE; JOURNAL OF CONSCIENTIOLOGY; N. 15S; London, UK; International Academy of Consciousness; 2002.

 

VAN LOMMEL, Pim et al; Near-Death Experience in survivors of cardiac arrest: a prospective study in the Netherlands; THE LANCET; Vol. 358; Issue 9298; p. 2039; London, UK; December 15, 2001.

 

VIEIRA, Waldo; “Projectiology: Panorama of Experiences Outside of the Human Body” (Portuguese); Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil; OESP Grafica; 1999.

 

VIEIRA, Waldo; “Projections of the Consciousness: A Diary of Out-of-Body Experiences”; Rio de Janeiro, RJ; International Institute of Projectiology and Conscientiology; 1995.

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

 

For their support in my study efforts, in various measures and ways, my sincere thanks to:

Anacleta and Moises Costa Campos, Portugal

Tim Conway, Science of Self Club, University of Florida

Brenda Dunne, PEAR Laboratory, Princeton University

Dr. Thomas Dykstra, Society for Scientific Exploration

Drs. Fukuyama, Welsch, Thursby, Neims, and Ritz: UF Center for Spirituality & Health

Dr. Kenneth Heilman, Department of Neurology, University of Florida

Dr. Morgan and Dr. Schauble, Department of Counseling Psychology, University of Florida

Sharon Joy Kleitsch, Florida Institute of Noetic Sciences

Adam Leonard, Human Potential Experience, Gainesville, Florida

Shenghua Luan, Department of Psychology, University of Florida

Rodrigo Medeiros and Patricia Sousa, International Academy of Consciousness – Miami

University of Florida Student Government

Dr. Veejay Reddy, Shands Hospital, University of Florida

Renato Sampaio, Bryan Lin, Ramon Rodriguez and Fernando Tavares, The A.K.A.

Nanci Trivellato and Wagner Alegretti, International Academy of Consciousness – London

 

Nelson Correia Abreu was born in Lisbon, Portugal in 1982 and moved to Florida in 1996.  Currently, he studies electrical engineering at the University of Florida, where he established the Science of Self Club, part of the new Intercollegiate Organization for Paranormal Studies.

 

1700 SW 16th Ct apt P-21

Gainesville, Florida 32608, USA

Phone: + 1 352 262 9181

Email: patagao@hotmail.com