By Nelson Abreu
Jeff Greenberg, a professor of psychology at the University of Arizona, Sheldon Solomon (Skidmore College) and Tom Pyszczynski (University of Colorado, Colorado Springs) are the originators of Terror Management Theory, which helps explain why humans react the way they do to the threat of death, and how this reaction influences their post-threat cognition and emotion. Their current research, to be featured in the December 2004 issue of the journal Psychological Science, suggests that the threat of death increases the appeal of charismatic leaders due to the need for psychological security.
The scientists asked subjects to think about their own death or a control topic and then read campaign statements of three hypothetical political candidates: charismatic, task-oriented, or relationship-oriented. Following a reminder of death, there was an almost 800 percent increase for the charismatic style but not the others.
A similar report by Solomon and Landau published in September’s Personality
and Social Science Bulletin indicates that reminders of death or the events
of 9/11 dramatically increased support for President Bush and his policies
regarding terrorists and
According to these studies, repeated death-related messages can be an effective election strategy for President Bush and other leaders who emphasize the greatness of their own nation and the need to eradicate the threatening evil around it – a heroic, patriotic victory over enemies of a nation’s values and its way of life. They emphasize the importance of monitoring efforts by candidates to capitalize on fear-mongering and to use their rationality to harmonize their emotional reactions. But is there something that we can do about the fear of death itself, which is the source of this vulnerability to political manipulation and coercion?
The fear of death seems to stem from mainly two things: the presence and
certainty of death and the uncertainty of what follows, since no one returns to
tell the story… Except for those who have had near-death or out-of-body
experiences according to
v Mindsight: Near Death & Out-of-Body Experiences in the Blind and Lessons from the Light: Dr. Kenneth Ring et al
v The New Children and Near Death Experiences and Coming Back to Life: The After-Effects of the Near-Death Experience by P. M. H. Atwater
v The Culture of Fear: Why Americans Are Afraid of the Wrong Things by Barry Glassner
v In the Wake of 9/11: The Psychology of Terror by Thomas A. Pyszczynski et al
v Projections of the Consciousness – a dairy of out-of-body experiences by Waldo Vieria, MD
Related Resources (Near Death Experience):
Patricia Sousa’s Near Death Experience course
Read about the NDE account of Plutarch of Queroneia in this article
Online articles on NDE by researcher PMH Atwater
Chapter 48 of the landmark scientific treatise Projectiology by Waldo Vieira, MD
Proceedings of the III International Congress of Projectiology and Conscientiology